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April 30, 2012 / compassioninpolitics

The basics of rhetoric as covered in public speaking classes

1) Alliteration
2) Allusion
3) Analogy
4) Climate
5) Enthymeme (ok not actually taught in intro class)
6) Metaphor
7) Paradox
8) Parallelism (isocolon & tricolon)
9) Personification
10) Rhetorical Question
11) Testimony & types of testimony (authorities, witnesses, maxims or proverbs or aphorisms, oaths, documents, law)

Other forms of rhetoric:
1) silence
2) omission
3) changes in word order
4) storytelling-context & setting the stage (past fact, future fact)
5) storytelling-the future
6) contrast
7) kairos (timing)
7) amplification
8) style
9) division, arrangement, order
10) hyperbole
11) absurdity

Other forms of rhetoric:
1) dirimens copulatio. A figure by which one balances one statement with a contrary, qualifying statement (sometimes conveyed by “not only … but also” clauses).
2) commoratio. Dwelling on or returning to one’s strongest argument
3) expeditio After enumerating all possibilities by which something could have occurred, the speaker eliminates all but one
4) ratiocinatio Reasoning (typically with oneself) by asking questions.
5) anthypophora A figure of reasoning in which one asks and then immediately answers one’s own questions (or raises and then settles imaginary objections). Reasoning aloud.
6) anamnesis. Calling to memory past matters. More specifically, citing a past author from memory.
7) euche. A vow to keep a promise.
8] eustathia. Promising constancy in purpose and affection.
9) deesis. An adjuration or calling to witness; or, the vehement expression of desire put in terms of “for someone’s sake” or “for God’s sake.”

Still other forms of rhetoric:
Figures used to provoke emotional response (pathos)


adhortatio

A comandment, promise, or exhortation intended to move one’s consent or desires.

adynaton
The expression of the inability of expression —almost always emotional in its nature.

aganactesis
An exclamation proceeding from deep indignation.

apagoresis
A statement designed to inhibit someone from doing something.

aposiopesis
Breaking off suddenly in the middle of speaking, usually to portray being overcome with emotion.

apostrophe
Turning one’s speech from one audience to another, or addressing oneself to an abstraction or the absent—almost always as a way of increasing appeal through emotion.

cataplexis
Threatening/prophecying payback for ill doing.

conduplicatio
The repetition of a word or words in adjacent phrases or clauses, either to amplify the thought or to express emotion.

congeries

deesis
The vehement expression of desire put in terms of “for someone’s sake” or “for God’s sake.”

descriptio
Vivid description, especially of the consequences of an act, that stirs up its hearers. (See enargia, below)

diacope
Repetition of a word with one or more between, usually to express deep feeling.

ecphonesis
An emotional exclamation.

enargia
Enargia, or vivid description, can be inherently moving, especially when depicting things graphic in nature.

energia
Energia, the vigor with which one expresses oneself, can obviously be emotionally affecting.

epanorthosis
Amending a first thought by altering it to make it stronger or more vehement.

epimone
Persistent repetition of the same plea in much the same words, a direct method for underscoring the pathetic appeal.

epiplexis
Asking questions in order to chide, to express grief, or to inveigh.

epitrope
A figure in which one turns things over to one’s hearers (often pathetically).

excitatio
To excite an audience, especially out of a stupor or boredom.

exuscitatio
Stirring others by one’s own vehement feeling.

inter se pugnantia
Using direct address to reprove someone before an audience openly.

mempsis
Expressing complaint and seeking help.

ominatio
A prophecy of evil. As the term’s name connotes, this can be “ominous” in tone.

paenismus
Expressing joy for blessings obtained or an evil avoided.

pathopoeia
A speech or figure designed to arouse emotion.

perclusio
A threat against someone, or something.

synonymia
The use of several synonyms together to amplify or explain a given subject or term. A kind of repetition that adds force.

(Link)

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